Hi everyone, For those who have read Witsius's On the Efficacy and Utility of Baptism in the Case of Elect Infants Whose Parents Are Under the Covenant, I had a question that I hope someone can answer for me. This was published in the 2006 issue of Mid-America Journal of Theology, vol 17, pp. 121-190. The document was excellent and such an edification for really addressing Infant Baptism, but I found this particular thing that Witsius does throughout the end of the text that I am afraid I do not have any context in knowing about. Page 168, item LVI: "Thus far we have seen what those benefits are which are signified and sealed to elect infants in baptism. We have seen also in what relation these benefits stand to the rite of baptism. It now remains to be ascertained wherein consists the nature and efficacy of the sealing. On this head we maintain generally that as baptism is a sacrament, and a sacrament is a seal, and the use of a seal is to confirm and certify something, the efficacy of baptism consists in the confirming and certifying of promised grace. In truth, its whole efficacy is moral (moralis), to speak scholastically, and is altogether distinct from an efficacy real (reali) and physical (physica). It is well observed by Francis Burman in his Synopsis theologiae, "Nor do we acknowledge in the sacraments any other than a moral virtue, such as resides in signs and words - not such as can effect or produce anything, but only signifies and seals." That signifying and sealing is indeed altogether valid, and when legitimately used contains in itself a certain exhibition of the thing signified, but such an exhibition as is agreeable to the nature of sacraments." I feel like I'm missing something about this threefold-nature of the efficacy - the moral, the real, the physical. It seems like the author is pulling it from somewhere else and I'm afraid I'm not privy to this knowledge, so I am not sure what Witsius means by saying it is a moral efficacy vs a physical or real efficacy. If anyone can shed light on the meaning of these words and their origin I would appreciate it.