Education at the time of the Reformation - Bibliography

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crhoades

Puritan Board Graduate
For those interested here is a list of books on education at the time of the Reformation. I have a couple on order and can let you guys know about them when they come in. These were listed in Bibliography of the Continental Reformation by Roland Bainton & Eric Gritsch (an excellent resource in itself!!!!! - if you don't have it pick it up used).

EBY, FREDERICK, Early Protestant Educators, the Educational Writings of Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Other Leaders of Protestant Thought. N.Y., 1931. xiii+312 pages. Includes translations of excerpts

EBY, FREDERICK, The Development of Modern Education. Its Theory, Organization and Practice. N.Y., 1952, x+719 pages.
A standard work. Chapters 2-7 deal with education in the 16th century to Comenius

HARBISON, ELMORE H., The Christian Scholar in the Age of the Reformation. N.Y., 1956. ix+177 pages.
Surveys humanism, and contains sketches of Erasmus, Luther and Calvin

WOODWARD, WILLIAM HARRISON. Studies in Education During the Age of the Renaissance. Cambridge, Eng., 1906. xx+336 pages.
Includes Sadoleto, Cordier, Melanchthon.
New edition, N.Y., 1965

There are more resources but they are from journals etc.

Happy reading!
 

VirginiaHuguenot

Puritanboard Librarian
I'm especially interested in learning more about the academics at the Geneva Academy. Please let me know if you glean anything about that in your studies!
 

VirginiaHuguenot

Puritanboard Librarian
Hmmm...this is interesting. My former PCUSA pastor, Charles Raynal, wrote a 1984 paper for the Calvin Studies Society which was later published in John Calvin & the Church: A Prism of Reform, ed. Timothy George Louisville, Westminster/John Knox, 1990 called "The Place of the Academy in Calvin's Polity." That looks intriguing.

He also translated "The Geneva Primer or Calvin's Elementary Catechism" by Rodolphe Peter, Strasbourg University, which was presented as a 1990 CSS paper.
 

crhoades

Puritan Board Graduate
Originally posted by VirginiaHuguenot
Do any of these works treat Jan Comenius?

EBY, FREDERICK, The Development of Modern Education. Its Theory, Organization and Practice. N.Y., 1952, x+719 pages.
A standard work. Chapters 2-7 deal with education in the 16th century to Comenius

I just received this one. Comenius is listed in the index around 20 times or more and is dedicated to pages 200-208. This looks like a phenomenal and comprehensive work. Don't know when I will get around to reading it though. Will try to skim through it and report back.
 

crhoades

Puritan Board Graduate
HARBISON, ELMORE H., The Christian Scholar in the Age of the Reformation. N.Y., 1956. ix+177 pages.
Surveys humanism, and contains sketches of Erasmus, Luther and Calvin

Just came in. Looks good...These were delivered as Stone Lectures at Princeton Theological Seminary in 1955.

TOC

Preface
I. Scholarship as a Christian Calling: Jerome, Augustine, Abelard, Aquinas - 1
II. The Revival of Learning: Petrarch, Valla, Pico della Mirandola, John Colet - 31
III. Erasmus - 69
IV. Luther - 103
V. Calvin - 137
Conclusion - 165
Index - 173

Looks like a neat little book. If I had to pick one over the other, I would go with Eby's for volume alone, but this one looks like a good supplement. The Eby book looks more at education in general whereas this one focuses on the role and calling of Christian Scholarship including "non-religious" writing.
:2cents:
 

VirginiaHuguenot

Puritanboard Librarian
More possibly helpful resources on the Geneva Academy:

On the curriculum of the Geneva Academy, see Gillian Lewis, "The Geneva Academy," in Calvinism in Europe, 1540 - 1620, pp. 35-63. On the Academy's educational role in the international community of Reformed Christians, see Karin Maag, Seminary or University? The Genevan Academy and Reformed Higher Education, 1560 - 1620 (Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1995).

Source: The Eucharist in the Reformation by Lee Palmer Wandell, p. 146
 

VirginiaHuguenot

Puritanboard Librarian
City ordinances concerning the Genevan Academy, June 1559:

06.66 Ordinances: Genevan Academy, 6/1559

The three lecturers namely those in Hebrew, Greek and the arts, should be chosen and should be accept the regulations in the same way as the school-teachers.

On Monday, Tuesday and Thursday of each week there should be two lectures given by each of them, one for an hour in the morning and the other for an hour in the afternoon. On Wednesday and Friday they should each lecture for an hour after dinner. On Saturday there shall be no lectures given. On Sunday they should go to hear the sermons.

...The Hebrew lecturer should comment upon some book from the Old Testament in the mornings. In the afternoons he should lecture on Hebrew grammar.

The Greek professor should lecture after the Hebrew class on some book of philosophy concerning morals. The book will be chosen from the works of Aristotle, Plato, Plutarch or one of the Christian philosophers. After lunch, he will deliver lectures...on some Greek poet, orator or historian, making a choice of the purest among them.

The lecturer in arts will follow the professor of Greek and he will lecture on a book of physics for half an hour. After lunch...he will expound knowledgeably the Rhetorics of Aristotle, the most famous speeches of Cicero or the books of Horace.

and

06.67 Ordinances: Genevan College, 6/1559

The behaviour of teachers is to be suitably serious; they are not to make derogatory remarks about the authors they are expounding, but confine themselves to making their meaning clear. They should warn their pupils about matters that are either obscure or out of place or cannot be dealt with fully. Silence should be observed; and negligent, inattentive or disorderly pupils are to be punished. The chief aim of the teaching is to be love of God and hatred of evil. They must not leave the classroom before the end of the lesson: when the bell rings, they should depart in an orderly fashion.

The pupils must treat one another in a friendly and truly Christian manner, and there must be no quarrelling during lessons. If there is any argument it must be referred to the Rector and the case must be stated to him in a Christian way. If it is not settled satisfactorily, it is to be referred to the ministers of God's Word, who will give an authoritative ruling.

The headmaster who is chosen and appointed is to be a God-fearing man, reasonably well qualified, a man of friendly disposition, neither rough nor harsh, able to set a good example to the scholars and to deal patiently with difficulties as they arise. In addition to the ordinary class teaching, he is to care for the morals and the industry of the establishment, take notice of and reprimand any who are late, be responsible for the punishments in the assembly hall, make sure that the bell rings at the proper time, and that the pupils are neatly dressed...

Lessons follow [morning assembly], lasting in summer time for an hour and a half; then they are allowed half an hour for breakfast, which is to be eaten quietly and with prayers, After that there is reaching until 9 o'clock. In winter lessons are from 7 to 9 without any break for breakfast, which is to be taken incidentally whilst pupils are working at their texts. When morning lessons are over, the Lord's Prayer is to be said in each classroom, together with grace. Then, reminding them of their work, two teachers accompany them to their homes, taking this duty in turn.

In both winter and summer the pupils return after dinner at 11 and practise singing the psalms until 12. Then a lesson follows until 1, followed, after prayers, by an hour's break; then two hours lessons until 4 o'clock. Then the bell rings for assembly in the hall where, in the presence of headmaster and teachers, punishments are administered with deliberate moderation, and three pupils say in French the Lord's Prayer, the Creed and the ten commandments. Dismissal follows, with the headmaster giving a blessing.

Source: G. Baum, E. Caunitz and E. Reuss, eds., Corpus Reformatorum (Opera Calvini), 59 vols. (Brunswick: 1863-90) vol. 38, cols. 75-80 p. 127. and vol. 38, cols. 69-74 pp. 125-6, respectively, Translated by G.R. Potter and M. Greengrass under the title John Calvin (London: Edward Arnold, 1983).
 

VirginiaHuguenot

Puritanboard Librarian
It is interesting to see what books were written for children over the centuries, and how the educational priorities have changed, as outlined in the table of contents for From Instruction to Delight: An Anthology of Children's Literature to 1850 by Patricia Demers:

New readings are indicted with *; List of Illustrations; Preface; Acknowledgements; Early Lessons at Home and School; From The Colloquy (c. 1000) - Aelfric; * From On the Properties of Things (c.1200) - Bartholomew the Englishman; The ABC of Aristotle (c. 1430) - Anonymous; * From The Schoole of Vertue and Booke of Good Nurture (1557) - Francis Seager; * From The Boke of Nurture, or Schoole of Good Manners (1577) - Hugh Rhodes; * From A Jewell House of Art and Nature (1594) - Hugh Plat; The Hornbook; The Battledore; DOMESTIC WRITING: JUVENILIA; * 'A new yeres gift' (1581) - William Paget; * 'George Bercklay to his grandfather' (1610) and 'George to Mrs Cave his mothers wayting woman' (c. 1613) - George Berkeley; * Letter to her Father: Mary Downing to Emmanuel Downing (1635) - Mary Downing; MOTHERS' ADVICE AND GRIEF; * From Miscelanea, Meditations, Memoratives (1604) - Elizabeth Grymeston; * From The Mothers Blessing (1616) - Dorothy Leigh; * From The Mothers Legacie to her Unborne Childe (1624) - Elizabeth Joscelin; * From A Ladies Legacie to her Daughters (1645) - Elizabeth Richardson; * 'On the death of my first and dearest childe' (1655) - Katherine Philips; * 'On the Death of my dear Daughter' (1703) - Lady Mary Chudleigh; WRITING OF CLERGYMEN AND SCHOOLMASTERS; * From This Historie of Four-Footed Beastes (1607) - Edward Topsell; From Orbis Sensualium Pictus (1659) - Johan Amos Comenius; Puritan 'Hell-Fire': Warnings and Warmth; From Milk for Babes (1646) - John Cotton; * 'Upon my Son Samuel' (1657) and 'In reference to her Children' (1659) - Anne Bradstreet; From A Token for Children (1672) - James Janeway; * From War with the Devil (1673) - Benjamin Keach; The New England Primer (1683-1830) - Benjamin Harris; From A Book for Boys and Girls (1686) - John Bunyan; Lyrical Instruction: Isaac Watts and his Contemporaries; From Divine Songs (1715) and Moral Songs (1740) - Isaac Watts; * From Fables (1727) - John Gay; * From Poems on Several Occasions (1734) - Mary Barber; Chapbooks and Penny Histories; An Elegy on the Death and Burial of C*ck Robin (1744); The Interesting Story of the Children in the Wood; From The Pleasant History of Thomas Hickathrift; From The Life and Death of Tom Thumb; The Trial of an Ox, for Killing a Man; From The Riddle Book; Boreman, Cooper, and Newbery: 'Instruction with Delight'; * From The Gigantick History (1741) - Thomas Boreman; From A Little Pretty Pocket-Book (1744) - John Newbery; From Nurse Truelove's New Year's Gift (1755) - John Newbery; From The History of Little Goody Two-Shoes (1765) - John Newbery; Rational Moralists; From The Governess (1749) - Sarah Fielding; * From The Adventures of a Pincushion (c. 1780) - Mary Ann Kilner; * From Poems on Various Subjects (1783) - Jane Cave; * From Her Journal Book (1783) - Anne 'Nancy' Shippen Livingston; From The History of Sandford and Merton (1783) - Thomas Day; From Cobwebs to Catch Flies (c. 1783) - Lady Eleanor Fenn; From Original Stories (1788) - Mary Wollstonecraft; * From Mental Improvement (1794) - Priscilla Wakefield; * From The Village School (c. 1795) - Dorothy Kilner; 'The Purple Jar' from Early Lessons (1801) - Maria Edgeworth; From The Young Emigrants (1826) - Catharine Parr Traill; From The Affectionate Parent's Gift (1828) - Henry Sharpe Horsely; From Mary's Grammar (1835) - Jane Marcet; From Rollo at School (1839) - Jacob Abbott; 'Janetta and her Jujubes' from Farewell Tales (1840) - Barbara Hofland; From Make the Best of It (1843) - Samuel Griswold Goodrich/Peter Parley (pseudonym); Sunday School Moralists; * From Early Piety (1777) - George Burder; From Hymns in Prose for Children (1781) and Lessons for Children: Part IV (1788) - Anna Letitia Barbauld; From Fabulous Histories (1786) and The Charity School Spelling Book (c. 1798) - Sarah Trimmer; * From Divine Hymns (1790) and Instructions for Children (1794) - Rowland Hill; * Black Giles, the Poacher: Part II (1796) - Hannah More; From The History of the Fairchild Family (1818) - Mary Martha Sherwood; * From The Peep of Day (1833) - Favell Lee Mortimer; From Flowers That Never Fade (1838) - Lucy Leman Rede; * From Dutch Tiles (1842) - Mrs Dalby; Harbingers of the Golden Age; From Hymns for the Amusement of Children (1772) and 'My Cat Jeoffrey' from Jubilate Agno (1758/9-1763) - Christopher Smart; From Songs of Innocence and of Experience (1794) - William Blake; From The Infant's Library (c. 1800) - John Marshall; From Original Poems for Infant Minds (1804-5) and Rhymes for the Nursery (1806) - Ann Taylor Gilbert and Jane Taylor; From The Daisy (1807) - Elizabeth Turner; The Butterfly's Ball and the Grasshopper's Feast (1807) - William Roscoe; The Peacock 'At Home' (1807) - Catherine Ann Dorset; * From Poems (1808) - Felicia Dorothea Browne; From Poetry for Children (1809) - Charles and Mary Lamb; From Peter Piper's Practical Principles of Plain and Perfect Pronunciation (1813) - Unknown; 'A Visit from Saint Nicholas' (1823) - Clement Clarke Moore; From Poems for Our Children (1830) - Sarah Josepha Hale; The Story of the Three Bears (1831) - Eleanor Mure; From Sketches of Natural History (1834) - Mary Botham Howitt; From Holiday House: A Series of Tales (1839) - Catherine Sinclair; From New Nursery Songs for All Good Children (1843) - Eliza Lee Follen; From The Book of Nonesense (1846) - Edward Lear; From The English Struwwelpeter (1848) - Heinrich Hoffman; * The Sad Tale of Mrs Mole and Mrs Mouse (c. 1849) - Jane Cotton Boucher de Montizambert; Bibliography; Index
 

VirginiaHuguenot

Puritanboard Librarian
Richard Baxter outlines the suggested contents of basic and more advanced Christian libraries in his Christian Directory, pp. 731-736 under the heading: Quest. CLXXIV. What books, especially of theology, should one choose, who for want of money or time can read but few? The list is quite educational in itself.
 

crhoades

Puritan Board Graduate
Just received this:

The Teaching Office in the Reformed Tradition
A History of the Doctoral Ministry
Robert W. Henderson
Abebooks

TOC

Preface
Frequently Used Abbrevieations
I. Introduction
II. Historical and Theoretical Background for a Teaching Office in the Church
-----The Teaching Office at the Daybreak of the Reformation
-----Calvin's Estimate of the Theological Foundation of the Church's Teaching Office
III. The Genevan Reform in School and Church
-----The Influence of Strasbourg on Calvin
-----The Educational Situation in Geneva
-----The Reformed College de Rive
-----The Academy and Church of the Pays du Vaud
-----The Doctorate in the Genevan Academy
IV. The Huguenot Church and the Doctoral Office
-----The Role of the Doctor Reflected in Synodical Records
-----Doctors of the Huguenot Church
V. Prophesying, Prophets, Doctors, and the Dutch
-----A Lasco and Poullain
-----The Church Orders
-----Summary
VI. The Doctor in the Church in Scotland
-----The Practice of the Doctoral Office in the Kirk, 1560-1578
-----The Second Book of Discipline and the Doctoral Office, 1578-1592
-----The Scottish Doctorate, Waning Presbytery, and Jacobean Episcopacy, 1592-1606
VII. The "Doctor-Teacher" in English Puritanism
-----Reform of Schools
-----The Marian Exiles
-----The Attempt to Presbyterianize the Church of England
-----The "Lecturer" as a Puritan Office
VIII.The Westminster Assembly and "Whether the Doctor be a Distinct Officer"
IX. The Doctoral Ministry in Later Reformed and Presbyterian Polity
X. Conclusion
Bibliography

277 pages and the bibliography looks pretty extensive at first glance.
Index
 

VirginiaHuguenot

Puritanboard Librarian
Chris -- Thanks again for that tip about The Teaching Office in the Reformed Tradition. It is a fascinating read. The bibliography alone is worth the book. I also note that the dust jacket says "This book represents the only piece of original research ever done on the subject."
 

VirginiaHuguenot

Puritanboard Librarian
Hmmm...this is interesting. My former PCUSA pastor, Charles Raynal, wrote a 1984 paper for the Calvin Studies Society which was later published in John Calvin & the Church: A Prism of Reform, ed. Timothy George Louisville, Westminster/John Knox, 1990 called "The Place of the Academy in Calvin's Polity." That looks intriguing.

This is a very good article. :up:
 

crhoades

Puritan Board Graduate
HARBISON, ELMORE H., The Christian Scholar in the Age of the Reformation. N.Y., 1956. ix+177 pages.
Surveys humanism, and contains sketches of Erasmus, Luther and Calvin

Just came in. Looks good...These were delivered as Stone Lectures at Princeton Theological Seminary in 1955.

TOC

Preface
I. Scholarship as a Christian Calling: Jerome, Augustine, Abelard, Aquinas - 1
II. The Revival of Learning: Petrarch, Valla, Pico della Mirandola, John Colet - 31
III. Erasmus - 69
IV. Luther - 103
V. Calvin - 137
Conclusion - 165
Index - 173

Looks like a neat little book. If I had to pick one over the other, I would go with Eby's for volume alone, but this one looks like a good supplement. The Eby book looks more at education in general whereas this one focuses on the role and calling of Christian Scholarship including "non-religious" writing.
:2cents:

I'm reading this now. Interesting comparison of Augustine and Jerome. I found a couple points to quibble with so far - it fits well with Princeton in 1955 - not the Machen era but thought provoking nonetheless.
 

VirginiaHuguenot

Puritanboard Librarian
Alexander J. McKelway's essay on The Importance of Calvin Studies for Church and College (found in John Calvin and the Church: A Prism of Reform, ed. Timothy George) is also very helpful in shedding light on the background and priorities of Genevan education.

It's probably the only thing by him that I recommend, however, sadly (although I might be wrong on this). I will add that he is the husband of my former piano teacher and a really nice guy. :)
 

Kevin

Puritan Board Doctor
A good friend of mine has a title forthcoming from Pater Noster. The title will be (somthing like) "Scotish Presbyterian Theological Eduction in the Kirk and Succession"

His name is Jack Whytock PhD and this is a version of his thesis. Should be good I read part of his thesis a few years ago and it was very interesting. Deals esp with the Associate Synod and John Brown (of Haddington).
 
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