I have been reading Calvin's Institutes lately, and found it interesting to note some differences between Calvin's theology and the Puritan's. One such difference we find is Calvin's view on the Sabbath. While the puritans viewed the Sabbath as a creation ordinance that preceeded the fall, Calvin appears to view it more as a type of ceremony designed to point to the everlasting rest of the saints in heaven. Consequently, rather than saying that the Sabbath day was changed to the first day of the week and its ceremonial part abolished but its moral part continuing, Calvin viewed the Sabbath as having been abolished and replaced by the Lord's Day: "It was not, however, without a reason that the early Christians substituted what we call the Lord's day for the Sabbath. The resurrection of our Lord being the end and accomplishment of that true rest which the ancient sabbath typified, this day, by which types were abolished serves to warn Christians against adhering to a shadowy ceremony." The puritans, however, would use the term "Sabbath" and "Lord's Day" interchangeably while Calvin did not. They also went at much greater length to outline what was permissible and forbidden on the Sabbath while Calvin states: "In this way, we get quit of the trifling of the false prophets, who in later times instilled Jewish ideas into the people, alleging that nothing was abrogated but what was ceremonial in the commandment, (this they term in their language the taxation of the seventh day,) while the moral part remains, viz., the observance of one day in seven. But this is nothing else than to insult the Jews, by changing the day, and yet mentally attributing to it the same sanctity; thus retaining the same typical distinction of days as had place among the Jews. And of a truth, we see what profit they have made by such a doctrine. Those who cling to their constitutions go thrice as far as the Jews in the gross and carnal superstition of sabbatism; so that the rebukes which we read in Isaiah (Isa. 1: l3; 58: 13) apply as much to those of the present day, as to those to whom the Prophet addressed them." Consequently, Calvin would have been opposed to the puritanical observance of the Sabbath that was commonplace in some of the New England colonies. Indeed, some of them even had an exact hour either on Saturday night or Sunday at 0:00 where the Sabbath day would officially begin. The puritans were also opposed to the celebration of any other religious holidays like Christmas and Easter on account that such are not commanded anywhere in the New Testament. Calvin, on the contrary, was not opposed to celebrating other days so long as there would be no superstition: "I do not cling so to the number seven as to bring the Church under bondage to it, nor do I condemn churches for holding their meetings on other solemn days, provided they guard against superstition." Overall, Calvin's doctrine of the Lord's Day is summed up in the following: "This they will do if they employ those days merely for the observance of discipline and regular order. The whole may be thus summed up: As the truth was delivered typically to the Jews, so it is imparted to us without figure; first, that during our whole lives we may aim at a constant rest from our own works, in order that the Lord may work in us by his Spirit; secondly that every individual, as he has opportunity, may diligently exercise himself in private, in pious meditation on the works of God, and, at the same time, that all may observe the legitimate order appointed by the Church, for the hearing of the word, the administration of the sacraments, and public prayer: And, thirdly, that we may avoid oppressing those who are subject to us... We must be careful, however, to observe the general doctrine, viz., in order that religion may neither be lost nor languish among us, we must diligently attend on our religious assemblies, and duly avail ourselves of those external aids which tend to promote the worship of God." All quotes taken from Calvin's Institutes at Calvinism Soteriology Topics (#34) Personally, while I used to hold to the puritan's view on the Sabbath, I think I now adopt Calvin's view as it appears to be more biblical and moderate.