Systematic Theology - Louis Berkhof

Systematic Theology - Louis Berkhof 2016-12-31

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Table of Contents
PART ONE: THE DOCTRINE OF GOD
THE BEING OF GOD
I. The Existence of God.............................................................18
A. Place of the Doctrine of God in Dogmatics
B. Scripture Proof for the Existence of God
C. Denial of the existence of God in its various forms
D. The So-called Rational Proofs for the Existence of God.
II. The Knowability of God.......................................................30
A. God Incomprehensible but yet Knowable
B. Denial of the Knowability of God
C. Self-revelation the Prerequisite of all Knowledge of God
III. Relation of the Being and Attributes of God ......................43
A. The Being of God
B. The Possibility of Knowing the Being of God
C. The Being of God Revealed in His Attributes
IV. The Names of God...............................................................50
A. The Names of God in General
B. The Old Testament Names and their Meaning
C. The New Testament Names and their Interpretation
V. The Attributes of God in General .........................................55
A. Evaluation of the Terms Used
B. Method of determining the attributes of God
C. Suggested Divisions of the Attributes
VI. The Incommunicable Attributes..........................................61
A. The Self-Existence of God
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B. The Immutability of God
C. The Infinity of God
D. The Unity of God
VII. The Communicable Attributes...........................................69
A. The Spirituality of God
B. Intellectual Attributes
C. Moral Attributes
D. Attributes of Sovereignty
VIII. The Holy Trinity...............................................................89
A. The Doctrine of the Trinity in History
B. God as Trinity in Unity
C. The Three Persons Considered Separately
THE WORKS OF GOD
I. The Divine Decrees in General............................................108
A. The Doctrine of the Decrees in Theology
B. Scriptural Names for the Divine Decrees
C. The Nature of the Divine Decrees
D. The Characteristics of the Divine Decree
E. Objections to the Doctrine of the Decrees
II. Predestination......................................................................118
A. The Doctrine of Predestination in History
B. Scriptural Terms for Predestination
C. The Author and Objects of Predestination
D. The Parts of Predestination
E. Supra- and Infralapsarianism
III. Creation in General ...........................................................137
A. The Doctrine of Creation in History
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B. Scriptural Proof for the Doctrine of Creation
C. The Idea of Creation
D. Divergent Theories Respecting the Origin of the World
IV. Creation of the Spiritual World..........................................153
A. The Doctrine of the Angels in History
B. The Existence of the Angels
C. The Nature of the Angels
D. The Number and Organization of the Angels
E. The Service of the Angels
F. The Evil Angels
V. Creation of the Material World ...........................................163
A. The Scriptural Account of Creation
B. The Hexaemeron, or the Work of the Separate Days
VI. Providence..........................................................................180
A. Providence in General
B. Preservation
C. Concurrence
D. Government
E. Extraordinary Providences or Miracles
PART TWO:
THE DOCTRINE OF MAN IN RELATION TO GOD
MAN IN HIS ORIGINAL STATE
I. The Origin of Man ..............................................................196
A. The Doctrine of Man in Dogmatics.
B. Scriptural Account of Origin of Man.
C. The Evolutionary Theory of the Origin of Man.
D. The Origin of Man and the Unity of the Roce.
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II. The Constitutional Nature of Man.....................................206
A. The Constituent Elements of Human Nature.
B. The Origin of the Soul in the Individual.
III. Man as the Image of God..................................................219
A. Historical Views of the Image of God in Man.
B. Scriptural Data Respecting the Image of God in Man.
C. Man as the Image of God.
D. The Original Condition of Man as the Image of God.
IV. Man in the Covenant of Works..........................................230
A. The Doctrine of the Covenant of Works in History.
B. The Scriptural Foundation for the Doctrine of the Covenant of Works.
C. Elements of the Covenant of Works.
D. The Present Status of the Covenant of Works.
MAN IN THE STATE OF SIN
I. The Origin of Sin.................................................................239
A. Historical Views Respecting the Origin of Sin.
B. Scriptural Data Respecting the Origin of Sin.
C. The Nature of the First Sin or the Fall of Man.
D. The First Sin or the Fall as Occasioned by Temptation.
E. The Evolutionary Explanation of the Origin of Sin.
F. The Results of the First Sin.
II. The Essential Character of Sin...........................................249
A. Philosophic Theories Respecting the Nature of Evil.
B. The Scriptural Idea of Sin.
C. The Pelagian View of Sin.
D. The Roman Catholic View of Sin.
III. The Transmission of Sin....................................................260
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A. Historical Review.
B. The Universality of Sin.
C. The Connection of Adam’s Sin with that of the Race.
IV. Sin in the Life of the Human Race ....................................268
A. Original Sin.
B. Actual Sin.
V. The Punishment of Sin........................................................280
A. Natural and positive penalties.
B. Nature and Purpose of Punishments.
C. The actual penalty of sin.
MAN IN THE COVENANT OF GRACE
I. Name and Concept of the Covenant....................................288
A. The Name.
B. The Concept.
II. The Covenant of Redemption ............................................292
A. Separate Discussion of this Desirable.
B. Scriptural Data for the Covenant of Redemption.
C. The Son in the Covenant of Redemption.
D. Requirements and Promises in the Covenant of Redemption.
E. The Relation of this Covenant to the Covenant of Grace.
III. Nature of the Covenant of Grace......................................300
A. Comparison of the Covenant of Grace and the Covenant of Works.
B. The Contracting Parties.
C. The Contents of the Covenant of Grace.
D. The Characteristics of the Covenant of Grace.
E. The Relation of Christ to the Covenant of Grace.
IV. The Dual Aspect of the Covenant......................................313
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A. An External and an Internal Covenant.
B. The Essence and the Administration of the Covenant.
C. A Conditional and an Absolute Covenant.
D. The Covenant as a Purely Legal Relationship and as a Communion of Life.
E. Membership in the Covenant as a Legal Relationship.
V. The Different Dispensations of the Covenant.....................320
A. The Proper Conception of the Different Dispensations.
B. The Old Testament Dispensation.
C. The New Testament Dispensation.
PART THREE:
THE DOCTRINE OF THE PERSON and THE WORK OF
Christ
THE PERSON OF Christ
I. The Doctrine of Christ in History........................................333
A. The Relation between Anthropology and Christology.
B. The Doctrine of Christ before the Reformation.
C. The Doctrine of Christ after the Reformation.
II. The Names and Natures of Christ......................................342
A. The Names of Christ.
B. The Natures of Christ.
III. The Unipersonality of Christ ............................................352
A. Statement of the Church’s View Respecting the Person of Christ.
B. Scriptural Proof for the Unipersonality of Christ.
C. The Effects of the Union of the Two Natures in One Person.
D. The Unipersonality of Christ a Mystery.
E. The Lutheran Doctrine of the Communication of Attributes.
F. The Kenosis Doctrine in Various Forms.
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G. The Theory of Gradual Incarnation.
THE STATES OF Christ
I. The State of Humiliation .....................................................364
A. Introductory: The Doctrine of the States of Christ in General.
B. The State of Humiliation.
II. The State of Exaltation.......................................................378
A. General Remarks on the State of Exaltation.
B. The Stages of the State of Exaltation.
THE OFFICES OF Christ
I. Introduction; The Prophetic Office ......................................391
A. Introductory Remarks on the Offices in General.
B. The Prophetic Office.
II. The Priestly Office...............................................................397
A. The Scriptural Idea of a Priest.
B. The Sacrificial Work of Christ.
III. The Cause and Necessity of the Atonement .....................404
A. The Moving Cause of the Atonement.
B. Historical Views respecting the Necessity of the Atonement.
C. Proofs for the Necessity of the Atonement.
D. Objections to the Doctrine of the Absolute Necessity of the Atonement.
IV. The Nature of the Atonement............................................411
A. Statement of the Penal Substitutionary Doctrine of the Atonement.
B. Objections to the Satisfaction or Penal Substitutionary Doctrine of the
Atonement.
V. Divergent Theories of the Atonement.................................424
A. Theories of the Early Church.
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B. The Satisfaction Theory of Anselm (Commercial Theory).
C. The Moral Influence Theory.
D. The Example Theory.
E. The Governmental Theory.
F. The Mystical Theory.
G. The Theory of Vicarious Repentance.
VI. The Purpose and the Extent of the Atonement ................433
A. The Purpose of the Atonement.
B. The Extent of the Atonement.
VII. The Intercessory Work of Christ......................................442
A. Scriptural Proof for the Intercessory Work of Christ.
B. The Nature of Christ’s Intercessory Work.
C. The Persons for Whom and the Things for Which He Intercedes.
D. The Characteristics of His Intercession.
VIII. The Kingly Office ...........................................................449
A. The Spiritual Kingship of Christ.
B. The Kingship of Christ over the Universe.
PART FOUR:
THE DOCTRINE OF THE APPLICATION OF THE
WORK OF REDEMPTION
I. Soteriology in General..........................................................457
A. Connection Between Soteriology and the Preceding Loci.
B. The Ordo Salutis, (Order of Salvation).
II. The Operations of the Holy Spirit in General....................467
A. Transition to the Work of the Holy Spirit.
B. General and Special Operations of the Holy Spirit.
C. The Holy Spirit as the Dispenser of Divine Grace.
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III. Common Grace .................................................................477
A. Origin of the Doctrine of Common Grace.
B. Name and Concept of Common Grace.
C. Common Grace and the Atoning Work of Christ.
D. The Relation Between Special and Common Grace.
E. The Means by Which Common Grace Operates.
F. The Fruits of Common Grace.
G. Objections to the Reformed Doctrine of Common Grace.
IV. The Mystical Union............................................................495
A. Nature of the Mystical Union.
B. Characteristics of the Mystical Union.
C. Erroneous Conceptions of the Mystical Union.
D. The Significance of the Mystical Union.
V. Calling in General and External Calling .............................503
A. Reasons for Discussing Calling First.
B. Calling in General.
C. External Calling.
VI. Regeneration and Effectual Calling...................................515
A. The Scriptural Terms for Regeneration and Their Implications.
B. The Use of the Term “Regeneration” in Theology.
C. The Essential Nature of Regeneration.
D. Effectual Calling in Relation to External Calling and Regeneration.
E. The Necessity of Regeneration.
F. The Efficient Cause of Regeneration.
G. The Use of the Word of God as an Instrument in Regeneration.
H. Divergent Views of Regeneration.
VII. Conversion........................................................................532
A. The Scriptural Terms for Conversion.
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B. The Biblical Idea of Conversion. Definition.
C. The Characteristics of Conversion.
D. The Different Elements in Conversion.
E. The Psychology of Conversion.
F. The Author of Conversion.
G. The Necessity of Conversion.
H. Relation of Conversion to other Stages of the Saving Process.
VIII. Faith ................................................................................547
A. Scriptural Terms for Faith.
B. Figurative Expressions Used to Describe the Activity of Faith.
C. The Doctrine of Faith in History.
D. The Idea of Faith in Scripture.
E. Faith in General.
F. Faith in the Religious Sense and Particularly Saving Faith.
G. Faith and Assurance.
H. The Roman Catholic Conception of Faith.
IX. Justification.........................................................................567
A. The Scriptural Terms for Justification and Their Meaning.
B. The Doctrine of Justification in History.
C. The Nature and Characteristics of Justification
D. The Elements of Justification.
E. The Sphere in which Justification Occurs.
F. The Time of Justification.
G. The Ground of Justification.
H. Objections to the Doctrine of Justification.
I. Divergent Views of Justification.
X. Sanctification.......................................................................586
A. The Scriptural Terms for Sanctification and Holiness.
B. The Doctrine of Sanctification in History.
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C. The Biblical Idea of Holiness and Sanctification.
D. The Nature of Sanctification.
E. The Characteristics of Sanctification.
F. The Author and Means of Sanctification.
G. Relation of Sanctification to Other Stages in the Ordo Salutis.
H. The Imperfect Character of Sanctification in This Life.
I. Sanctification and Good Works.
XI. Perseverance of the Saints.................................................606
A. The Doctrine of the Perseverance of the Saints in History.
B. Statement of the Doctrine of Perseverance.
C. Proof for the Doctrine of Perseverance.
D. Objections to the Doctrine of Perseverance.
E. The Denial of this Doctrine Makes Salvation Dependent on Man’s Will.
PART FIVE:
THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH AND OF THE
MEANS OF GRACE
THE CHURCH
I. Scriptural Names of the Church and the Doctrine of the
Church in History ....................................................................614
A. Scriptural Names for the Church.
B. The Doctrine of the Church in History.
II. Nature of the Church..........................................................622
A. The Essence of the Church.
B. The Many-sided Character of the Church.
C. Various Definitions of the Church.
D. The Church and the Kingdom of God.
E. The Church in the Different Dispensations.
F. The Attributes of the Church.
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G. The Marks of the Church.
III. The Government of the Church .......................................642
A. Different Theories Respecting the Government of the Church.
B. The Fundamental Principles of the Reformed or Presbyterian System.
C. The Officers of the Church.
D. The Ecclesiastical Assemblies.
IV. The Power of the Church ..................................................658
A. The Source of Church Power.
B. The Nature of this Power.
C. Different Kinds of Church Power.
THE MEANS OF GRACE
I. The Means of Grace in General ..........................................670
A. The Idea of the Means of Grace.
B. Characteristics of the Word and the Sacraments as Means of Grace.
C. Historical Views Respecting the Means of Grace.
D. Characteristic Elements in the Reformed Doctrine of the Means of Grace.
II. The Word as a Means of Grace..........................................676
A. Meaning of the Term “Word of God” in This Connection.
B. The Relation of the Word to the Holy Spirit.
C. The Two Parts of the Word of God Considered as a Means of Grace.
D. The Threefold Use of the Law.
III. The Sacraments in General...............................................683
A. Relation Between the Word and the Sacraments.
B. Origin and Meaning of the Word “Sacrament”.
C. The Component Parts of the Sacraments.
D. The Necessity of the Sacraments.
E. The Old and New Testament Sacraments Compared.
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F. The Number of the Sacraments.
IV. Christian Baptism ...............................................................689
A. Analogies of Christian Baptism.
B. The Institution of Christian Baptism.
C. The Doctrine of Baptism in History.
D. The Proper Mode of Baptism.
E. The Lawful Administrators of Baptism.
F. The Proper Subjects of Baptism.
V. The Lord’s Supper...............................................................714
A. Analogies of the Lord’s Supper among Israel.
B. The Doctrine of the Lord’s Supper in History.
C. Scriptural Names for the Lord’s Supper.
D. Institution of the Lord’s Supper.
E. The Things Signified and Sealed in the Lord’s Supper.
F. The Sacramental Union or the Question of the Real Presence of Christ in
the Lord’s Supper.
G. The Lord’s Supper as a Means of Grace, or Its Efficacy.
H. The Persons for Whom the Lord’s Supper Is Instituted.
PART SIX: THE DOCTRINE OF THE LAST THINGS
Introductory Chapter...............................................................731
A. Eschatology in Philosophy and Religion.
B. Eschatology in the History of the Christian Church.
C. The Relation of Eschatology to the Rest of Dogmatics.
D. The Name “Eschatology.”
E. The Contents of Eschatology: General and Individual Eschatology.
INDIVIDUAL ESCHATOLOGY
I. Physical Death ......................................................................739
A. The Nature of Physical Death.
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B. The Connection of Sin and Death.
C. The Significance of the Death of Believers.
II. The Immortality of the Soul...............................................744
A. Different Connotations of the Term “Immortality.”
B. Testimony of General Revelation to the Immortality of the Soul.
C. Testimony of Special Revelation to the Immortality of the Soul.
D. Objections to the Doctrine of Personal Immortality and Modern Substitutes
for It.
III. The Intermediate State......................................................752
A. The Scriptural View of the Intermediate State.
B. The Doctrine of the Intermediate State in History.
C. The Modern Construction of the Doctrine of Sheol-Hades.
D. The Roman Catholic Doctrines Respecting the Abode of the Soul After
Death.
E. The State of the Soul after Death One of Conscious Existence.
F. The Intermediate State not a State of Further Probation.
GENERAL ESCHATOLOGY
I. The Second Coming of Christ.............................................770
A. The Second Coming a Single Event.
B. Great Events Preceding the Parousia.
C. The Parousia or the Second Coming Itself.
II. Millennial Views..................................................................785
A. Premillennialism.
B. Postmillennialism.
III. The Resurrection of the Dead...........................................799
A. The Doctrine of the Resurrection in History.
B. Scriptural Proof for the Resurrection.
C. The Nature of the Resurrection.
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D. The Time of the Resurrection.
IV. The Final Judgment............................................................808
A. The Doctrine of the Last Judgment in History.
B. The Nature of the Final Judgment.
C. Erroneous Views Respecting the Judgment.
D. The Judge and His Assistants.
E. The parties that will be judged.
F. The Time of the Judgment.
G. The Standard of Judgment.
H. The Different Parts of the Judgment.
V. The Final State.....................................................................816
A. The Final State of the Wicked.
B. The Final State of the Righteous.
BIBLIOGRAPHY....................................................................820
DOGMATICS IN GENERAL
Reformed
Non-Reformed
THE SEPARATE LOCI
Theology
Anthropology
Christology
Soteriology
Ecclesiology
Eschatology
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